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  1. Shavitt, S., Brock, T.C. Delayed Recall of Copytest Responses: The Temporal Stability of Listed Thoughts. Journal of Advertising. Armonk: 1990. Vol 19(4), p. 6.

    Data from a large-scale advertising copy testing study were analyzed to assess the overall level of recall of listed thoughts at a delay, and to determine the types of listed thoughts that were particularly retrievable. Female heads-of-household viewed a series of television commercials and listed thoughts about each. One week later, the respondents, who were re-contacted by telephone, were able to recall the content of half of their listed thoughts. More importantly, comparisons of the recall rates for listed-thought categories supported theory-based predictions about the responses that should be particularly retrievable. Thoughts that contained evaluative content were significantly more likely to be recalled than favorable thoughts. Also, thoughts about the self were more likely to be recalled than thoughts that did not contain self-relevant content. This greater retrievability of self-relevant thoughts was true for commercials with standard executional styles. However, for ads with a highly unusual presentation or spokesperson, thoughts about the ad execution appeared to be the most retrievable. The study suggests that the cognitive responses elicited by a persuasive message contribute strongly to message acceptance because such responses reflect enduring thought processes.

  2. Norris, Claire E., Coleman, Andrew M. Context Effects on Recall and Recognition of Magazine Advertisements. Journal of Advertising. Armonk: 1992. Vol 21(3), pp. 37-46.

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that depth of involvement in a magazine article is inversely related to subsequent recall and recognition of accompanying advertisements. Subjects read magazine articles interspersed with unfamiliar advertisements for common product types. Results showed that the more deeply the subjects were involved in the articles the less they remembered about the accompanying advertisements. Articles about recipes were rated least interesting, enjoyable, and absorbing, and they elicited less attention and concentration from the readers than fiction and feature articles, but subjects who read the recipes remembered the advertisements best and subjects who read the fiction article remembered the advertisements worst.

  3. Alwitt, Linda F., Prabhaker, Paul R. Functional and Belief Dimensions of Attitudes to Television Advertising: Implications for Copytesting. Journal of Advertising Research. Vol 32(5), Sep/Oct. 1992, pp. 30-42.

    This study examined several types of reasons for people's claimed general dislike of television advertising. Television advertising in general is evaluated differently by people of different ages and incomes, but, in addition, their evaluations are influenced by their attitudes about television programs. The paper argues that people dislike advertising because they perceive commercials to be offensive or in poor taste, and because they cannot completely trust the way products are depicted. People also dislike advertising because much of it is not relevant to their needs or their self-images as reflected in their personalities and interests. Differences among consumers in how they evaluate overall attitudes about TV advertising can influence how copy tests of advertising for specific brands are interpreted.

  4. Celuch, Kevin G., Slama, Mark. Program Content and Advertising Effectiveness: A Test of Congruity Hypothesis for Cognitive and Affective Sources of Involvement. Psychology & Marketing, July/Aug. 1993, Vol 10(4), pp. 285-299.

    It has been suggested by McClung, Park and Sauer (1985) that television ads will be more effective if the source of involvement in the ad (cognitive or affective) matches the source of involvement in the program in which the ad is embedded. This research employed a two-factor experimental design in which cognitively involving ads and affectively involving ads were viewed in cognitively and affectively involving programs. Congruency between the sources of program and ad involvement did not produce greater ad effectiveness than did incongruence. The programs did, however, influence ad effectiveness.

  5. Coulter, Keith S., Murphy, Sewall A. The Effects of Editorial Context and Cognitive and Affective Moderators on Responses to Embedded Ads. Advances in Consumer Research, 1995, Vol 22, pp. 177-183.

    This paper utilizes two experiments within a print media setting to examine the manner in which contextual involvement effects may be moderated by a number of key variables including affective tone of the article and ad (i.e. affective consistency), cognitive priming of relevant attributes, and involvement in the advertisement. Results indicate that editorial context involvement has a negative impact on attitude toward the ad (Aad). This relationship is moderated by the interactive effects of affective consistency and ad involvement. Cognitive priming was found to interact with editorial involvement in influencing attitude toward the brand, but not Aad. The results have important implications in terms of achieving the appropriate "match" between editorial content and advertising message.

  6. Starr, Valerie, Lowe, Charles. The Influence of Program Context and Order of Ad Presentation on Immediate and Delayed Responses to Television Advertisements. Advances in Consumer Research, 1995, Vol 22.

    Differences in program context significantly influence the effectiveness of advertisements appearing at different points within the same program. Specifically, recall for brands and products advertised was found to be greater when a low-involvement point of the surrounding story was interrupted. Also within a relatively uninvolving program context, the first advertisement to appear in a series of advertisements had a significant advantage in recall over the second and third ads, perhaps because viewers became impatient for the program to resume and paid less attention to the ads. These results have implications for optimal placement of advertisements to enhance their effectiveness.

  7. Forgas, Joseph P.; Mood and judgment: The affect infusion model (AIM). Psychological Bulletin, Vol 117(1), Jan. 1995. pp. 39-66.

    Evidence for the role of affective states in social judgments is reviewed, and a new integrative theory, the affect infusion model (AIM), is proposed as a comprehensive explanation of these effects. The AIM, based on a multiprocess approach to social judgments, identifies 4 alternative judgmental strategies: (a) direct access, (b) motivated, (c) heuristic, and (d) substantive processing. The model predicts that the degree of affect infusion into judgments varies along a processing continuum, such that judgments requiring heuristic or substantive processing are more likely to be infused by affect than are direct access or motivated judgments. The role of target, judge, and situational variables in recruiting high- or low- infusion judgmental strategies is considered, and empirical support for the model is reviewed. The relationship between AIM and other affect-cognition theories is discussed, and implications for future research are outlined.

  8. Dubow, J.S., Advertising Recognition and Recall By Age - Including Teens. Journal of Advertising Research. Vol 35(5), Sep/Oct 1995.

    The paper claims that published information on memory for advertising as a function of age appears to be limited to younger (18 to 34) versus older adults (35+) and to the "day -after recall" measure. Additional data from three copy testing companies adds the brand recall and recognition measures to the literature - and adds data for teenagers. Memory for advertising is found to vary as a function of age across all three measures: Fore each measure, young adults remember advertising better than older adults, and teens remember advertising better than young adults.

  9. Ha, Louisa. Observations: Advertising Clutter in Consumer Magazines: Dimensions and Effects. Journal of Advertising Research. 1996, Vol 36(4), pp. 76-81.

    The controversy over the effect of clutter, together with conflicting research results, could probably be attributed to the poor conceptualization of clutter and advertising effects. The cognitive-information-processing approach has been the tradition in clutter research. This approach tends to examine how clutter affects memory or ads. It overlooks affective responses, such as attitudes, that can be elicited by clutter.

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of clutter on advertising effectiveness in consumer magazines, a self-paced medium. There are three possible dimensions of clutter that constitute the density perception and account for clutter's negative effects on information processing:

    1. quantity - the number of advertisements and the proportion of ad space in a media vehicle
    2. competitiveness - the degree of similarity of the advertised products and the proximity between the advertisements of competitive brands in the same product category in a media vehicle, and
    3. intrusiveness - the degree to which advertisements in a media vehicle interrupt the flow of an editorial unit


  10. Celuch, Kevin G., Slama, Mark. The effects of cognitive and affective program involvement on cognitive and affective ad involvement. Journal of Business & Psychology, Vol 13(1), Fall 1998, pp. 115-126.

    Advertisers attempt to create ads which gain the attention and involvement of their audience. These advertisements may be primarily cognitively or Affectively involving. Similarly the programs in which the ads are embedded may be primarily cognitively or effectively involving. Does the type of program involvement affect involvement with ads? Building on previous research (McClung, Park and Sauer 1985; Park and McClung 1986) a study is presented which suggests that cognitive involvement in ads (particularly cognitive ads) suffers from an overload effect when the ads are placed in cognitively involving programs while affect involvement in ads is enhanced by a priming effect when the ads are placed in affectively involving programs.

  11. Coulter, Keith S. The Effects of Affective Responses to Media Context on Advertising Evaluations. Journal of Advertising, Vol 27(4), Winter 1998, pp. 41-51.

    The author examines the effects of emotional responses to television programming (program-induced affect) on attitude toward the ad (Aad). He finds that both thoughts about the program and overall program evaluations (i.e., progam liking) mediate the effect of program-induced affect on Aad, and that emotional responses to the ad moderate the relationship between program liking and Aad. More specifically, the program liking-Aad linkage is strengthened if the ad and program are similar in emotional content. That effect is enhanced for ads appearing early within a pod. The author proposes and tests a model specifying the nature of the relationships among those variables, and discusses the practical implications for advertising practitioners.

  12. Vakratsas, Demetrios, Ambler, Tim. How Advertising Works: What Do We Really Know? Journal of Advertising, Vol 63(1), 1999, pp. 26-43.

    The authors review more than 250 journal articles and books to establish what is and should be known about how advertising affects the consumer - how it works. They first deduce a taxonomy of models, discuss the theoretical principles of each class of models, and summarize their empirical findings. They then synthesize five generalizations about how advertising works and propose directions for further research. Advertising  effects are classified into intermediate effects, for example, on consumer beliefs and attitudes, and behavioral effects, which relate to purchasing behavior, for example, on brand choice. The generalizations suggest that there is little support for any hierarchy, in the sense of temporal sequence, of effects. The authors propose that advertising effects should be studied in a space, with affect, cognition, and experience as the three dimensions. Advertising's positioning in this space should be determined by context, which reflects advertising's goal diversity, product category, competition, other aspects of mix, stage of product life cycle, and target market.