do. feel. think.
feel. do. think.
Gallagher, Katherine, Foster, Dale K., Parsons, Jeffrey. The
Medium is Not the Message: Comparing Advertising Effectiveness
and Content Evaluation in Print and on the Web. Journal of
Advertising Research, 41(4), 2001, pp. 57-70.
Some have argued that traditional principles of mass media advertising do not apply on the web. We present an empirical study that contradicts this assertion. Our findings suggest that advertisers need not take full advantage of the enhanced capabilities of the medium to produce effective web advertising. Given equal opportunity for exposure to the target audience, the same advertisements were equally effective in print and on the web. However, for promotional material that consumers would not classify as advertising, evaluations were lower when the material was presented on the web. We propose a plausible explanation for this apparent paradox.
De Pelsmacker, Patrick, Geuens, Maggie, Anckaert, Pascal. Media
Context and Advertising Effectiveness: The Role of Context
Appreciation and Context/Ad Similarity. Journal of Advertising,
Vol 31(2), 2002, pp. 49-61.
Humorous, warm and rational television and print advertisements are tested in similar television and print contexts. The impact of ad style/context style congruency and context appreciation on the attitude toward the ad and recall was studied. Results show that low involvement persons perceived ads embedded in a congruent context as clearer and more likable. High involvement persons percieved ads embedded in a contrasting context as having a higher likeability and clarity. Ads shown in a highly appreciated television or print context resulted in a more positive attitude toward the ad. As opposed to a print environment, in a television context, ad content and brand recall were positively influenced by a positively appreciated context.
Jones, Marilyn Y., Pentecost, Robin, Requena, Gabrielle. Memory
for Advertising and Information Content: Comparing the Printed
Page to the Computer Screen. Advances in Consumer Research, Vol
30, 2003, pp. 295-297.
An experiment was used to test memory for two forms of information - ad copy (persuasive) and consumer information (nonpersuasive) presented in print and screen media. For both forms of information, print outperforms screen on recall but not on recognition. The results suggest that print information is easier to retrieve but also that screen information is available in memory. Differences between print and screen media are persistent and not readily explained by any of the obvious individual factors - comfort/familiarity, preference and reading time. Other results with implication for marketing communication decisions show that brand name is poorly recalled from the screen relative to the printed page and that the non persuasive consumer information is better remembered than is persuasive ad information.
Moorman, Marjolein. Context Considered: The Relationship Between
Media Environments and Advertising Effects. Ph.D. diss., 2003,
Universeiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam.
It is generally assumed that the medium context in which advertisements are placed, does not allow an audience of a certain composition and size to see the ads, yet also influences how the ads affect the audience. Although this belief is widespread, our knowledge about the effects of the context on advertising impact is still rather limited. For example, what is it about the context that causes the effect? Are context effects caused by objectively noticeable characteristics, such as content, genre or style? Does a commercial always perform better in a sitcom break compared to a talk show break? Or are context effects more dependent on the perception of the individual audience members? Does it matter whether the context induces involvement or whether people like the environment in which the ad is embedded? Equally little is know about the direction of effects. Does context-induced involvement stimulate people to pay attention to embedded ads, or does it distract them? Do people remember an ad when it matches its environment, or is a non-matching ad more eye-catching and therefore better remembered? Do people appreciate an ad more when they like its environment, or does it induce annoyance? The aim of this dissertation is to identify how context influences advertising effects. It presents an overview of the most critical context factors, and the underlying mechanisms explaining their effects. Moreover, it empirically explores how these context factors influence advertising effects in real-life, focusing on ads in magazines and on television. The book offers insights for media planning and gives directions for further research in this area.
Romaniuk, J. Measuring brand perceptions: Testing quantity and
quality. Journal of Targeting Measurement & Analysis for
Marketing, Vol11(3), Mar. 2003, pp. 218-230.
The image of a brand is considered to be important as is evident from the vast sums of money spent by companies on the development and measurement of their corporate/brand image. Yet very little is known about the relationship between brand perceptions and buyer behavior. The authors empirically tested three hypotheses about the relationship between brand perceptions and loyalty. They found that (a) there was little evidence that any particular attributes are more related to customer loyalty than any others nor (b) that there were little specific brand positions that were uniquely associated with higher loyalty. They did, however, find the more attributes associated with a brand the more loyal the customer. This is a relatively unexplored effect of brand perceptions, which should be included in brand tracking, and has some profound implications for marketing practice. It suggests that while distinctiveness is useful in making sure that the brand's marketing activities are noticed and correctly branded, the source of that distinctiveness is a less important marketing decision. Finally, they recommend that there should be different long and short-term goals for brand building. In the short term a choice may be made to focus on specific attributes. In the long term, however, marketers should work towards building the number of links between the brand and attributes in the market place, i.e. building the brand's share of mind.
Lowrey, T.M., Shrum, L.J. & Dubitsky, T.M. The Relation Between
Brand-Name Linguistic Characteristics and Brand-Name Memory.
Journal of Advertising, Vol 32(3), Fall 2003,
Copy testing results from a commercial copy testing firm were used to assess the relation between the presence of linguistic features in brand names and memory for those names. Brand names in the ads being tested (n=480) were coded on 23 linguistic properties, of which 11 occurred with sufficient frequency to be retained for analysis. Regression analyses tested for the association between linguistic properties of the brand names and brand-name memory as a function of brand-name familiarity, controlling for executional variables. Results revealed that three linguistic variables were positively related to brand-name memory (semantic appositeness, paranomasia, initial plosives), but only for less familiar brands. Two linguistic variables showed main effects for brand-name memory: unusual spelling (positive) and blending (negative). However, the effects were stronger for less familiar brands than they were for same interaction with familiarity: The effects were stronger for less familiar brands. These results are interpreted within Criak and Lockhart's (1972) depth of processing framework and implications for the naming of brands are discussed.
Kensiger, E.A. & Corkin, S. Memory enhancement for emotional
words: Are emotional words more vividly remembered than neutral
words? Memory & Cognition, Vol 31(8), Dec. 2003. pp. 1169-1180.
Individuals are more likely to remember negative information than neutral information. In the experiments reported here, we examined whether individuals were also more likely to remember details of the presentation of negative words, as compared with neutral words. In Experiment 1, the remember-know procedure was used to examine the effect of emotion on the vividness of an individual's memory, showing that remember responses were more frequently assigned to negative words than neutral words. In Experiment 2, a source memory paradigm was used, and again, evidence that individuals' memories were more detailed for negative than for neutral words was found. In Experiments 3-6, we examined the relative contribution of valence and arousal, finding that both dimensions increased the vividness of remembered information (i.e. items with valence only and those that elicited arousal were better remembered than neutral information) but that the effect was greater for words that evoked arousal than for those with valence only. The results support a qualitative, as well as a quantitative, memory benefit for emotional, as compared with neutral, words.
Ruiz, Salvador and Sicilia, Maria, The impact of cognitive
and/or affective processing styles on consumer response to
advertising appeals. Journal of Business Research, Vol 57(6),
June 2004, pp. 657-664.
As advertisers increasingly seek greater communication effectiveness and new forms of media emerge, psychological differences amongst individuals are becoming essential criteria in the design of advertising appeals. The present study considers whether individuals differ in their propensity to rely on affective, cognitive or both systems to process information. This research suggests that persuasive appeals tend to be more effective when the nature of the appeal matches, rather than mismatches, the individual personality-type preferences for processing information. Results show that informational and informational-emotional advertising appeals, which match consumer's processing style (thinking and thinking-feeling processors, respectively), can generate more positive attitudes toward the brand, purchase intention (PI) and brand choice.
Schupp, H.T., Ohman, A., Junghofer, M., Weike, A.I., Stockburger
J., & Hamm, A.O. The Facilitated Processing of
Threatening Faces: An ERP Analysis. Emotion, Vol 4(2), Jun.
2004. pp. 189-200.
Threatening, friendly and neutral faces were presented to test the hypothesis of the facilitated perceptual processing of threatening faces. Dense sensor event-related brain potentials were measured while subjects viewed facial stimuli. Subjects had no explicit task for emotional categorization of the faces. Assessing early perceptual stimulus processing, threatening faces elicited an early posterior negativity compared with non-threatening neutral or friendly expressions. Moreover, at later stages of stimulus processing, facial threat also elicited augmented late positive potentials relative to the other facial expressions, indicating the more elaborate perceptual analysis of these stimuli. Taken together, these data demonstrate the facilitated perceptual processing of threatening faces. Results are discussed within the context of an evolved module of fear.
Calvo, M.G.; Avero, P. Time course of attentional bias to
emotional scenes in anxiety; Gaze direction and duration.
Cognition and Emotion, Vol 19(3), 2005. pp. 433-451.
Pictures of emotionally neutral, positive, and negative (thread- or harm-related) scenes were presented for 3 seconds, paired with nonemotional control pictures. The eye fixations of high and low trait anxiety participants were monitored. Intensity of stimulus emotionality was varied, with two levels of perceptual salience for each picture (color vs. greyscale). Regardless of perceptual salience, high anxiety was associated with preferential attention: (a) towards all types of probability of first fixation on the emotional picture than on the neutral picture of a pair; (b) towards positive and harm stimuli in a subsequent stage of early engagement, as shown by longer viewing times during the first 500 ms following onset of the pictures; and with (c) attention away from (i.e., avoidance) harm stimuli in a later phase, as indicated by shorter viewing times and lower frequency of fixation during the last 1000 ms of picture exposure. This suggests that the nature of the attentional bias varies as a function of the time course in the processing of emotional pictures.
Fredrickson, B.L., & Branigan, C. Positive emotions broaden the
scope of attention and thought-action repertoires. Cognition and
Emotion, Vol 19(3), 2005. pp. 313-332.
The broaden-and-build theory (Fredrickson, 1998, 2001) hypothesizes that positive emotions broaden the scope of attention and thought-action repertoires. Two experiments with 104 college students tested these hypotheses. In each, participants viewed a film that elicited (a) amusement, (b) contentment, (c) neutrality, (d) anger, or (e) anxiety. Scope of attention was assessed using a global-local visual processing task (Experiment 1) and thought-action repertoires were assessed using a Twenty Statements Test (Experiment 2). Compared to a neutral state, positive emotions broadened the scope of attention in Experiment 1 and thought-action repertoires in Experiment 2. In Experiment 2, negative emotions, relative to a neutral state, narrowed thought-action repertoires. Implications for promoting emotional well-being and physical health are discussed.
C.J., The brand attitude formation process of emotional and
informational ads. Journal of Business Research. Vol 58(10),
Oct. 2005, pp. 1397-1406.
This study examines brand attitude formation process by ad execution format (emotional vs. informational). For ads with an emotional ad format, heightening positive feelings and reducing negative feelings enhanced thoughts about credibility of the ad, which in turn affected ad attitudes and brand attitudes. For ads with an informational ad format, enhancing evaluative thoughts about the credibility of the ad enhanced positive feeling and reduced negative feelings. These variables in turn affected brand attitudes, both directly, and through the mediational influence of ad. These results have relevant theoretical implications for studying the various processes by which brand attitudes are formed and have managerially relevant implications regarding advertising copy-testing.