do. feel. think.
feel. do. think.
Faseur, T., and Geuens, M., Different Positive Feelings Leading to Different Ad Evaluations. Journal of Advertising, 35(4), 2006. pp. 129-142.
This study contributes to the debate about the valence-based versus the multidimensional view of feelings. The differential impact of three different positive context- and ad-induced feelings on ad effectiveness was compared. Support for the multidimensional view of feelings was found in the sense that ad- and context-evoked coziness, excitement, and romance had a different impact on ad evaluations. In addition, a significant interaction effect between ad- and context-induced feelings indicated that ads that were exciting, romantic, and cozy scored best in a feeling-congruent context.
Jung-Sook, Lee. Affect Intensity and Need for Cognition: Effects
on Cognitive Elaboration of Emotional Advertising. American
Academy of Advertising Conference Proceedings, 2006. pp. 61-71.
The experiment investigates the effects of two personality traits, Need for Cognition (NFC) and Affect Intensity (AI), on college students' reactions to emotional advertising. The findings indicate high Need for Intensity alone does not influence cognitive elaboration. However, the interaction between Need for Cognition and Affect Intensity affects both the amount and nature of cognitive elaboration, especially in humor ads. High Affect Intensity enhances individuals' cognitive elaboration only among those with high Need for Cognition.
Moorman, M., Neijens, P.C., Smit, E.G. The Effects of Program
Involvement on Commercial Exposure and Recall in a Real-Life
Setting. The Journal of Advertising, Vol 36, 2007. pp. 121-37.
Although program involvement is often found to be an important determinant of commercial recall, studies have produced mixed results. The authors contend that inconsistent findings are, in large part, a result of the degree to which respondents are free to determine their exposure to commercials. It is hypothesized that in studies where exposure is not forced, program involvement has a positive effect on commercial recall. This proposition was examined during the broadcast of four matches of the 2000 European Soccer Championship (N=344). Results show that viewers who saw a highly involving match recalled commercials significantly better than those who saw matches that scored lower on program involvement. This effect was, in large part mediated by respondents' exposure to the commercials.
Baird, T.R., Wahlers, R.G., & Cooper, C.K. Non recognition of
print advertising: Emotion arousal and gender effects. Journal
of Marketing Communications, Vol 13(1), Mar, 2007. pp. 39-57.
Research in the behavioral sciences has found that memory tends to be enhanced by exposure to emotion-arousing stimuli. While this relationship is not fully understood, the linkage appears to be more pronounced for females than for males. While the majority of prior studies dealing with memory have relied on the use of visual stimuli in a clinical experimental setting, this research examined the impact on memory resulting from exposure to actual print advertisements of varying degrees of arousal-producing content. Differences in the relationship between arousal and memory were explored for male and female participants. In general, females were found to exhibit higher memory levels than males. As a single combined group, subjects exposed to emotion arousing versus emotion neutral ad stimuli exhibited no significant difference in memory. For the set of emotion neutral ad stimuli, no difference in memory was found between sexes. However, retention was significantly higher for females than males for the set of emotion-arousing stimuli. The study identifies opportunities for further applied memory research.
Labroo, Aparna and A Ramanathan, Suresh, The Influence of
Experience and Sequence of Conflicting Emotions on Ad Attitudes.
Journal of Consumer Research. Vol 33(4), Mar. 2007, pp.523-528.
Two experiments suggest that when participants evaluate an ad, they prefer improving ad emotions, because attitudes based on an assessment of whether the emotions deviate positively or negatively from previous levels of emotions. In contrast, when emotions are experienced, positive emotions facilitate coping with later negativity, and an ad with declining (vs. improving) emotions results in more favorable attitudes. This beneficial effect of experienced positive emotions in reducing the impact of subsequent negative emotions is reversed when the positive emotions are allowed to dissipate over a time delay between the experiences of the two emotions.
Aaker, J., Drolet, A., and Griffin, D., Recalling Mixed Emotions. Journal of Consumer Research, 35(2), 2008. pp. 268-278.
In two longitudinal experiments, conducted both in the field and lab, we investigated the recollection of mixed emotions. Results demonstrated that the intensity of mixed emotions is generally underestimated at the time of recall--an effect that increases over time and does not occur to the same degree with unipolar emotions. Of note, the decline in memory of mixed emotions is distinct from the pattern found for memory of negative emotions, implying that the recall bias is diagnostic of the complexity of mixed emotions rather than of any association with negative affect. Finally, the memory decay effect was driven by the felt conflict aroused by the experience of mixed emotions.
Hye-Jin, Paek, Hye-Jin, Choi H., & Nelson, M.R. Conditional
Functional Matching Effects: The Complex Relationships Among
Self-Monitoring, Product Function, and Advertising Appeals,
American Academy of Advertising Conference Proceedings (Online),
2008. Lubbock: pg. 68.
The study involved two experiments to test the functional matching effects hypothesis for gauging advertising effectiveness. In particular, it examines the main and joint effects of self-monitoring, types of advertising appeals, and functions of products on advertising effects. Experiment I, using a copy testing method, demonstrated that socially adjustive appeals were preferred for the social-identity product and utilitarian appeals were preferred for the utilitarian product (product-based functional matching effect). But when self-monitoring personality was considered, the functional matching effect was more pronounced for the social-identity product. High self-monitors tended to evaluate socially-adjustive appeals more favorably regardless of the product. Experiment II used different participants, experimental design, actual advertising stimuli, and dependent variables (advertising message quality and attitude toward advertised product) with product involvement as a covariate. The results show that self-monitoring seems to play a stronger role in functional matching effects, canceling the functional matching effects among self-monitoring , and advertising appeals. The authors conclude that functional matching effects are conditional upon product involvement and consumer personality. The study recommends that researchers should invite more promising persuasion and personality theories to explain and predict better which advertising appeals can be more persuasive and, more importantly, under which conditions and to whom. Practical implications with regards to advertising message strategy and market segmentation are discussed.
Locher, P., Frens, J. & Overbeeke, K. The influence of induced
positive affect and design experience on aesthetic responses to
new product designs. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and
the Arts, Vol 2(1). Feb, 2008. pp. 1-7.
This experiment found that positive affect, induced by a gift of a small bag of candy (not consumed), enhanced ratings of the visual appeal of a set of six digital cameras by male participants untrained and trained in principles of design theory, as compared to control groups who did not receive candy (N=10 per group). The number of participants; reactions to the cameras' features, the affective quality of their reactions (positive, negative or neutral), and the time taken to evaluate each camera were obtained from participants' "think aloud" procedure verbalizations recorded as they examined each camera. Analyses of these cognitive process measures revealed that, consistent with the Affect Infusion Model proposed by Forgas (1995), training in design differentially influenced the cognitive processing styles responsible for positive affect's influence on the judgments; design students engaged in substantive processing whereas untrained students employed heuristic processing to arrive at their ratings. Results demonstrate that induced positive affect can influence aesthetic evaluative judgments, a heretofore neglected aspect of cognition in the literature describing the effects of induced mood on behavior.
Storbeck, Justin, and Clore, Gerald L., The affective regulation
of cognitive priming. Emotion, Vol 8(2), Apr, 2008. pp. 208-215.
Semantic and affective priming are classic effects observed in cognitive and social psychology, respectively. The authors discovered that affect regulates such priming effects. In Experiment 1, positive and negative moods were induced before one of three priming tasks; evaluation, categorization, or lexical decision. The study found that positive affect led to both affective priming (evaluation task) and semantic priming (category and lexical decision tasks). However, negative affect inhibited such effects. In Experiment 2, participants in their natural affective state completed the same priming tasks as in Experiment 1. Here affective priming (evaluation task) and category priming (categorization and lexical decision tasks) were observed in such resting affective states. Hence, authors conclude that negative affect inhibits semantic and affective priming. These results support theoretical models which suggest that positive affect promotes associations among strong and weak concepts, and that negative affect impairs such associations.
Clore, Gerald L., Affective guidance of intelligent agents: How
emotion controls cognition. Cognitive Systems Research, Vol
10(1), March, 2009. pp. 21-30.
In this article, the authors examine how emotional reactions influence both judgments and cognitive performance. They argue that many affective influences are due, not to affective reactions themselves, but to the information they carry about value. The specific kind of influence that occurs depends on the focus of the agent at the time. When making evaluative judgments, for example, an agent's positive affect may emerge as a positive attitude toward a person or object. But when an agent focuses on a cognitive task, positive affect may act like feedback about the value of one's approach. As a result, positive affect tends to promote cognitive, relational processes, whereas negative affect tends to inhibit relational processing, resulting in more perceptual, stimulus-specific processing. As a consequence, many textbook phenomena from cognitive psychology occur readily in happy moods, but are inhibited or even absent in sad moods.
Heath, Robert. Emotional engagement: How television builds big
brands at low attention. Journal of Advertising Research, Vol
49(1), Mar, 2009. pp. 62-73.
This article proposes a new definition for engagement that is independent of attention. Engagement is defined as "the amount of subconscious 'feeling' going on when an advertisement is being processed." An "emotional engagement" model is developed that shows how strong brands can be built without the need for the high levels of attention that advertising usually demands. Finally, empirical evidence is presented demonstrating that, although TV advertising excels at building strong brands, on-air commercials get less than half the attention of print advertising. This confirms TV advertising is a high engagement, low attention medium.
Megehee, Carol M. Advertising time expansion, compression, and
cognitive processing influences on consumer acceptance of
message and brand. Journal of Business Research, New York: Vol
62(4), Apr, 2009. p. 420.
This article examines the nature of consumer process involvement and cognitive processing of advertising content as mediating variables between commercial message executions (e.g., broadcast time compression and expansion and using broadcast versus print media) on attitude and behavioral intentions. This article proposes a framework that builds on the prior work of Krugman, Wright, and MacInnis and colleagues; this framework includes hypotheses of an advertising execution and processing involvement interaction effect on cognitive processing of commercial messages and a substantial direct effect of cognitive processing on attitude and behavioral intention. The article includes details of an experiment testing hypotheses in the framework. The findings provide strong support of the hypotheses. Implications for advertising strategy include adopting a conservative view on the use of time compression in advertising commercials and nurturing low consumer processing involvement of commercial messages.
Schacht, Annekathrin; Sommer, Werner. Emotions in word and face
processing: Early and late cortical responses. Brain and
Cognition, Vol 69(3), Apr. 2009, pp. 538-550.
Recent research suggests that emotion effects in word processing resemble those in other stimulus domains such as pictures or faces. The present study aims to provide more direct evidence for this notion by comparing emotion effects in word and face processing in a within-subject design. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded as participants made decisions on the lexicality of emotionally positive, negative and neutral German verbs or pseudowords, and on the integrity of intact happy, angry and neutral faces or slightly distorted faces. Relative to neutral or negative stimuli both positive verbs and happy faces elicited posterior ERP negativities that were indistinguishable in scalp distribution and resembled the early posterior negativities reported by others. Importantly, these ERP modulations appeared at very different latencies. Therefore, it appears that similar brain systems reflect the decoding of both biological and symbolic emotional signals of positive valence, differing mainly in the speed of meaning access, which is more direct and faster for facial expressions than for words.
Chingching, Chang "Being Hooked" by Editorial Content, Journal
of Advertising, Vol 38(1), Spring 2009. pp. 21-33.
Processing narratives demands sufficient cognitive resources; therefore, the effectiveness of narrative advertising depends on individuals' cognitive capacities. In contexts where cognitive capacity was constrained by processing narrative editorials, narrative advertising was less likely to transport and "hook" readers or evoke empathy. The relative effectiveness of narrative and argument advertising was also moderated by editorial content. When reading narrative magazine articles, participants failed to take argument strength into account when evaluating a subsequent ad. In addition, the superior effectiveness of narrative advertising compared to argument advertising in terms of generating more favorable cognitive responses, warm feelings, and positive ad and brand attitudes did not emerge when participants read narrative articles. In contrast, when reading facts-based articles, participants elaborated more on the subsequent ad and took argument strength into account. In this condition, narrative advertising was able to be processed and, as a result, was more effective than argument advertising.
Rubinson, Joel. Empirical Evidence of TV Advertising
Effectiveness. Journal of Advertising Research, Vol 29(2), June,
2009. pp. 20-226.
Seven different databases - accounting for a total of 388 case histories - were accessed to conduct a form of meta-analysis to address the question of whether the effectiveness of TV advertising has decreased over time. These databases include results from advertising-weight tests, marketing-mix modeling, copy testing, return-on-marketing analysis from quasi-experimental design, and media-planning tools. The author concludes that impressions from TV advertising appear to be as effective as ever, even possibly increasing in effectiveness. In terms of specific marketing objectives, the results suggest that the impact of TV on sales lift appears to operate primarily by generating brand awareness, suggesting that an effective marketing plan that uses TV should do so in conjunction with multiple forms of marketing in order to impact all stages of the consumer purchase process.
L., Amir, O., & Ariely, D. In search of Homo Economicus:
Cognitive noise and the role of emotion in preference
consistency. Journal of Consumer Research, Vol 36(2), Aug, 2009.
Understanding the role of emotion in forming preferences is critical in helping firms choose effective marketing strategies and consumers make appropriate consumption decisions. In five experiments, participants made a set of binary product choices under conditions designed to induce different degrees of emotional decision processing. The results consistently indicate that greater reliance on emotional reactions during decision making is associated with greater preference consistency and less cognitive noise. Additionally, the results of a meta-analytical study based on data from all five experiments further show that products that elicit a stronger emotional response are more likely to yield consistent preferences.
LaTour, Kathryn A., LaTour, Michael S. Positive mood and
susceptibility to false advertising. Journal of Advertising.
Armonk: Vol 38(3), Fall 2009, p. 127.
This paper examines the impact of mood on consumers' implicit and explicit responses to false advertising. In the first experiment, they find that those consumers in a positive (versus a negative or neutral) mood state are more likely to notice the false information in the advertising, but paradoxically, are also likely to develop positive feelings toward the brand. In that experiment, they used both a hedonic brand (Disney) and a hedonic/emotional ad (autobiographical). In the second experiment, they extend the ad stimulus context beyond Disney to Wendy's to more readily facilitate autobiographical versus informational manipulations. The findings indicate that hedonic advertising execution (autobiographical vis-a-vis informational) is associated with more elaborate processing (but only for those in a positive mood.) The observed positive affect transfer continued, however, despite the greater detection of the false information in the positive mood condition. The authors propose that the negative feelings toward the ad associated with detecting the false information are momentary and are replaced by positive feelings toward the brand that are engendered by positive mood and the advertising, as suggested by the synapse model of memory. The third experiment varies the timing of our measures to investigate this proposition and finds that timing does matter. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of the findings for research on mood, deceptive advertising, and implicit versus explicit effects of advertising response.
Labroo, A., and Rucker, D. The Orientation-Matching Hypothesis: An Emotion-Specificity Approach to Affect Regulation. Journal of Marketing Research (JMR), 47(5), 2010. pp. 955-966.
This article proposes that merely considering outcomes associated with a positive approach emotion (e.g., happiness) can regulate negative emotions that evoke an approach orientation (e.g., sadness, anger). In contrast, outcomes associated with a positive avoidance emotion (e.g., calmness) best regulate negative emotions that evoke an avoidance orientation (e.g., anxiety, embarrassment). Although such orientation-matched (versus mismatched) positive outcomes might not address the problem that caused the negative emotion, they automatically signal a reduced need for affect regulation specific to the evoked orientation. Thus, orientation matching results in emotional benefit, increases preferences toward matched outcomes, and frees resources for subsequent tasks.
Micu, A., and Plummer, J. T., Measurable Emotions: How Television Ads Really Work. Journal Of Advertising Research, 50(2), 2010. pp. 137-153.
Emotional responses are complex and should be measured against a variety of metrics. Five advertising research companies spanning three physiological (GSR, HRT, and facial EMG), one symbolic (ZMET), and three self-report (verbal, visual, and moment-to-moment) measures tested the effectiveness of the same four television commercials. This study compared and contrasted the physiological, symbolic, and self-report measure results and found they should be used in combination, depending on the information needed. Traces from the physiological measures indicate the peaks of lower-order emotions. Self-report measures capture conscious emotional reactions using preset labels. Symbolic measures provide a mental map of the brand. The authors suggest brand managers could use different criteria in setting the advertising objectives and reorient the creative briefing process. Emotional experiences are co-created, and advertising planning should link the "brand story" with a consumer's "life story."
Dolcos, F., Iordan, A. D., and Dolcos, S. Neural Correlates of Emotion–Cognition Interactions: A Review of Evidence from Brain Imaging Investigations. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 23(6), 2011. pp. 669-694.
Complex dynamic behaviour involves reciprocal influences between emotion and cognition. On the one hand, emotion is a “double-edged sword” that may affect various aspects of our cognition and behaviour, by enhancing or hindering them and exerting both transient and long-term influences. On the other hand, emotion processing is also susceptible to cognitive influences, typically exerted in the form of emotion regulation. Noteworthy, both of these reciprocal influences are subjective to individual differences that may affect the way we perceive, experience, and eventually remember emotional experiences, or respond to emotionally challenging situations. Understanding these relationships is critical, as unbalanced emotion–cognition interactions may lead to devastating effects, such as those observed in mood and anxiety disorders. The present review analyses the reciprocal relationships between emotion and cognition, based on evidence derived from brain imaging investigations focusing on three main topics: (1) the impact of emotion on cognition, (2) the impact of cognition on emotion, and (3) the role of individual differences in emotion–cognition interactions.
Kim, J., Baek, Y., and Choi, Y., The Structural Effects of Metaphor-Elicited Cognitive and Affective Elaboration Levels on Attitude Toward the Ad. Journal of Advertising, 41(2), 2102. pp. 77-96.
This study examines the structural effects of cognitive and affective elaborations elicited by metaphoric advertising messages using the model developed by MacKenzie, Lutz, and Belch (1986). Results of an experiment with a 2 (low/high involvement) X 2 (hedonic/utilitarian) between-subjects design indicated that the level of metaphor-elicited cognitive elaboration had a significant effect on attitude toward advertiser, whereas the level of metaphor-elicited affective elaboration was significant on ad perceptions and ad credibility. In addition, affective elaborations had a greater overall impact, in terms of total effect, on Ajd compared to the cognitive elaborations. Details about the effects of cognitive and affective elaborations under different product conditions are presented, and theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.
Jung-Chung, K., Der-Juinn, H., Chin-Lung, L., and Sheng-Hsien, L., The Causal Relationship between Need for Cognition and Advertising Recall. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 40(6), 2012. pp. 1025-1032.
Using a factorial experiment design, the study investigated the causal relationship between personality factors and cognitive responses, as well as the relationship between cognitive responses and purchasing intentions. The research found that participants with high need for cognition (NFC) had better advertising recall than those with low NFC and that advertising recall was related to purchasing intention in that those who had good recall of the advertisement had a higher purchase intention than those who had poor recall. The results contribute to personality literature by extending findings relating to the antecedent effects of NFC on cognitive responses. In addition, a contribution was made to attitude research by identifying advertising recall as a viable explanatory variable. Managerial implications are suggested.
Rossiter, J., and Bellman, S. Emotional Branding Pays Off. Journal of Advertising Research, 52(3), Sep. 2012. pp. 291-296.
Emotional branding is defined here as the consumer's attachment of a strong, specific, usage-relevant emotion-such as Bonding, Companionship, or Love-to the brand. The present large-scale survey of buyers of frequently purchased consumer products finds that, for such products, full-strength emotional branding is attained among, at most, only about 25 per cent of the brand's buyers but that, if attained, it pays off massively in terms of personal share of purchases. Emotional branding may well be more widely effective for high involvement, positively motivated products (not surveyed here). It seems that advertising can generate the expectancy of strong, specific, emotional attachment, but very favorable brand usage experience must follow if this approach is to be successful. In general, the traditional benefit-based "USP" advertising strategy seems less risky with lesser though more widespread effectiveness.
Sabri, O. Taboo Advertising: Can Humor Help to Attract Attention and Enhance Recall? Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, Vol. 20, No. 4, 2012. pp. 407-422.
"Taboo advertising" is often seen as an effective way to attract attention and enhance recall. Drawing on arousal theory and the "taboo-superiority effect," this study questions the nature of the relationship between the level of tabooness and the achievement of those aims. Purpose-designed print advertisements manipulated levels of taboo and humor. Analysis of data collected from 180 respondents in France finds a curvilinear relationship, in which an optimum level of taboo-arousal achieves maximum attention and recall. It also finds that humor decreases perceived tabooness of objectively high-taboo advertisements. Implications for marketing communications strategy are discussed, and future research directions are suggested.
Moorman, M., Willemsen, L., Neijens, P., Smit, E. Program-Involvement Effects on Commercial Attention and Recall of Successive and Embedded Advertising. Journal of Advertising, Vol. 41(2), 2012. pp. 25-37.
Research on context effects has demonstrated a link between program-induced involvement and recall of commercials broadcast in breaks. However, the effect of program-induced involvement on recall of advertising embedded in the program itself has been understudied. In addition, little consideration has been given to the antecedents of program involvement. The present study aims to address these gaps. Results from a naturalistic field study show an attention spillover effect on both embedded and successive advertising. The results further demonstrate that program involvement is a function of various personal factors, related to enduring topic involvement and social viewing environment.
Bart, Yakov, Stephen, Andrew T., and Sarvary, Miklos. (2014) Which Products Are Best Suited to Mobile Advertising? A Field Study of Mobile Display Advertising Effects on Consumer Attitudes and Intentions. Journal of Marketing Research: June 2014, Vol. 51, No. 3, pp. 270-285.
Mobile advertising is one of the fastest-growing advertising formats. In 2013, global spending on mobile advertising was approximately $16.7 billion, and it is expected to exceed $62.8 billion by 2017. The most prevalent type of mobile advertising is mobile display advertising (MDA), which takes the form of banners on mobile web pages and in mobile applications. This article examines which product characteristics are likely to be associated with MDA campaigns that are effective in increasing consumers' (1) favorable attitudes toward products and (2) purchase intentions. Data from a large-scale test-control field experiment covering 54 U.S. MDA campaigns that ran between 2007 and 2010 and involved 39,946 consumers show that MDA campaigns significantly increased consumers' favorable attitudes and purchase intentions only when the campaigns advertised products that were higher (vs. lower) involvement and utilitarian (vs. hedonic). The authors explain this finding using established theories of information processing and persuasion and suggest that when MDAs work effectively, they do so by triggering consumers to recall and process previously stored product information.
Malik, Garima and Guptham, Abhinav. (2014) Impact of Celebrity Endorsements and Brand Mascots on Consumer Buying Behavior. Journal of Global Marketing, Vol. 27(2), May 2014, pp.128-143.
Celebrity and brand mascot endorsements are very popular and often-used techniques by marketers. Marketers believe that celebrity and brand mascot endorsements provide a higher degree of appeal, attention, and customer recall ability compared with when this technique is not used. Marketers also claim that a celebrity affects the credibility of claims about a product and increases the memorabilia factor of the message, which may provide a positive effect that could be generalized to the brand. Primarily this essay has been designed such that it examines various parameters related to advertisements containing celebrity and brand mascot endorsements. Data were been collected from 150 respondents through questionnaire and subjected to t test, χ2 test, and difference of means test to enforce the hypotheses that celebrity endorsements have impacts on customers’ perceptions and their purchase intentions. The findings of this study provide insights for marketing and brand managers to design and market their campaigns effectively.